Nephrology is a speciality of medicine that concerns with the kidneys; the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication.

Nephrology also studies systemic conditions that affect the kidneys, such as diabetes, autoimmune disease and systemic diseases that occur as a result of kidney diseases. A physician who has undertaken additional training and becomes certified in nephrology is called a nephrologist.